When Alexander the Great passed through with his armies in 333 BC and nearly met his death here after a bath in the Cydnus. Strabo praises the cultural level of Tarsus in this period with its philosophers, poets and linguists. The schools of Tarsus rivaled those of Athens and Alexandria. At this time the library of Tarsus held 200,000 books, including a huge collection of scientific works.
Early Neolithic site in southeastern Turkey dated to 11000 years ago: Göbekli Tepe, Urfa New settlement discovered in Konya, Turkey, dating back 11,000 years Etruscans: Anatolian Italians? A recent DNA-based survey suggests the roots of Etruscans, a pre-Roman civilization in Italy, lie in Anatolia.